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The Secret Of The Digest System

Postad av : admin


Understanding the normal physiological structure and function of the human body helps us understand how the disease occurs and how it can be prevented and treated.



For example, the main function of esophagus is to transport food to the stomach, when the delivery process is not smooth (difficult to swallow), indicating that the esophagus may be blocked, the most common reason is the occurrence of benign stenosis or long tumor.



The main function of the cardia is to control the opening and closing of the esophagus and stomach connection, when the cardia is no longer closely closed, the stomach acid and stomach contents will reflux to the esophagus or even throat, leading to a series of diseases associated with gastroesophageal reflux. There is a disease called achalasia, is the cardia loss of relaxation function, continued to lead to eating difficulties.



The main function of the stomach is the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin digestive food, gastric mucosa can secrete mucus to protect the stomach itself from gastric acid and pepsin digestion, and once the gastric mucosal protection function weakened, too much secretion of gastric acid, leading to ulcers happened.



The pylorus is the switch that controls the stomach outlet, and after the digestion of the food is small enough, the pylorus will open, allowing the food to enter the small intestine, completing further digestion and absorption. If the pylorus can not open normally, resulting in food can not enter the small intestine, there is always a sense of satiety, severe cases can even lead to pyloric infarction.



Gallbladder is concentrated bile and store bile organs, if you do not eat long, the bile will be too easy to precipitate crystals and the formation of stones, stones if the gallbladder out of the mouth will cause cholecystitis.


Biliary tract

Biliary tract is the transport of bile pipes, if the bile duct was gallstones or tumor stuck, it will lead to bile can not be normal excretion, resulting in jaundice, usually biliary tract infection, manifested as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice triple sign.


Small intestine

Small intestine is the main part of the absorption of nutrition, if unfortunately got viral gastroenteritis, small intestine mucosal element normal absorption of digestive juice, there will be watery diarrhea.



Colon is the place to absorb moisture, the formation and storage of feces, if the stool in the colon to be too long to dry hard, there is the so-called constipation. If the colon is stimulated, food debris absorption is not completely on the excreted, called diarrhea.


Digestive system function


Digestive system is like the logistics department, in charge of nutrition supply. People will eat a lifetime, from the diet to obtain a variety of nutrients, for the needs of body growth and development. However, we eat food can not be directly used by the human body cells, must be digested through the decomposition of the food into amino acids, anti-acid, glucose and other small molecules of matter can be.


Simply understand that the main function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the decomposition of food into small molecules can be absorbed nutrients, absorption is the decomposition of nutrients absorbed into the blood.


How the food is digested and absorbed


Strictly speaking, food from the moment of eating into the mouth has begun to digest the process. Food through the teeth of the chewing and stirring the tongue was chopped, ground, complete the initial digestion. Chewed food, through the esophagus to the stomach of the peristalsis. The main function of the stomach is to temporarily store food and through the stomach peristalsis, so that the stomach and food mixed thoroughly to form a thick paste. The food stays in the stomach for 2 to 4 hours, then enters the small intestine, mixed with the digestive juice from the membrane glands and liver, where the food has been largely broken down. These substances through the intestinal wall of the capillaries and lymphatic vessels absorbed by the body, sent to the body of various organs. And finally did not be absorbed and difficult to digest the food residue (such as dietary fiber, pectin, etc.) down the river into the large intestine. The main function of the large intestine is to further absorb moisture and electrolytes, so that the food residue gradually from the fluid state into a semi-solid state, the formation of feces, and then excreted by the anus.







The human body long  digestive tract like as a river: esophagus, duodenum, small intestine, large intestine like the river upstream and downstream, width, water flow are not the same.


The stomach is like a lake, a large "cistern", cardia, pylorus, flap and  anus like a road gate, which controls the direction and speed of the water, and the food is like vessel that keeps passing from the upper reaches of the river crossing finally into the downstream.


Esophagus: from the mouth to the stomach of the narrow channel

Stomach: temporary storage, the initial digestion of food "reservoir"

Small intestine: nutrient absorption channel

Large intestine: feces forming place

Pancreas : An organ that secrete digestive enzymes

Liver: the organ that produces bile

Gallbladder: where the bile is stored



The general principle of digestion


Digestion process can be divided into two kinds of chemical digestion and mechanical digestion, the two digestion complement each other. Mechanical digestion is through the digestive tract muscle contraction and peristalsis, the food stirring, rubbing, and full contact with the digestive juice mix. Chemical digestion refers to the digestive system organs of the secretion of various digestive juice on the food in the various components (protein, fat, carbohydrates, etc.) decomposition, its degradation into soluble small molecules.


Digestive system by organ classification can be divided into digestive tract and digestive gland two categories. Digestive tract is the place to digest and absorb food, from the mouth has been connected to the anus, the length can be 5 to 7 meters long. The digestive gland is the organ that produces and secrete digestive fluid, including the oral glands, the liver, the pancreas, and the small glands on the walls of the digestive tract. Bile ducts and pancreatic ducts are special digestive ducts, which are specialized channels for transporting digestive fluids. Biliary tract is the channel of transport bile, pancreatic duct is the transport of pancreatic juice channel, both in the duodenum wall after the confluence of intestine, for the intestinal tract to provide a mixed digestive solution, liver and pancreas on the specific content will be introduced later The


The general structure of the digestive tract


Usually the digestive tract can be divided into four layers, one of the most important two layers is the muscle and mucous layer. Muscle layer is the fourth floor of the digestive tract 4 layer structure, is the main structure of the digestive tract, muscle layer makes the digestive tract can continue to rub and peristalsis, and thus transport food. Digestive tract muscle called smooth muscle, and the muscles on the bones are not the same, it is not our control, but the body automatically adjusts a class of muscle. This is why we do not have to think about the digestion of food to let the gastrointestinal peristalsis, because they are "programmed, automated". But this is also the cause of colic when we have no way to stop it. Digestive system can be said that in addition to chewing and swallowing we need to take the initiative, the other steps are automatically programmed to complete, we do not have to consider and can not use the will to control, but the digestive system will be affected by our daily life and emotional impact.


The mucosa is the place where the digestive tract epithelium is attached, like a piece of tile covered by the outer surface of the house, which is covered with the entire digestive tract. It is called mucosal layer, mainly because this layer of cells will continue to secrete mucus to ensure the lubrication of the digestive tract, while the mucosal layer there is another important function: Absorb water and various nutrients. In addition, the mucosa of the stomach can also secrete gastric acid and digestive enzymes. Mucosal cells also have a great feature is growing fast: mucosal cells continue to fall off at the same time, are constantly added to update the wear cells.



    Esophagus, human digestion of the first part of the pipeline, on the pharynx, under the stomach, the main function is to transport food from the mouth to swallow.


    The esophagus is a narrow muscle fossa composed of smooth muscle, the wall is flexible and expanding capacity: the expansion of food through the time, in the non-eating flat. Its main duty is to deliver the food group formed after chewing the mouth to the stomach. The food does not fall mainly into the stomach by the gravity of the earth, but by the muscles of the esophageal wall, like waves, and the food is pushed into the stomach. The main function of esophagus is to transport food, to help food through, but not digestive function.


    Esophageal function so single, so that "there is no" an esophagus named arteries and veins: the upper esophageal blood supply from thyroid blood vessels, the middle of the blood supply from the bronchial blood vessels, and the lower blood supply from the gastric blood vessels. Because esophageal function is relatively simple, there are studies with the artificial esophagus with a membrane instead of burns and other lesions of the esophagus.


    As the esophagus is relatively long, when the esophagus was foreign body stuck, esophageal wall when the foreign body will appear when the symptoms of dysphagia. In general, the esophageal wall is flexible and dilatant, early may only have mild dysphagia, it is difficult to swallow thousands of hard food, only when the esophagus is deep infiltration of cancer, tumor development to the late general There is no way to swallow.


Esophageal mucus cells secrete mucus on the surface of the esophagus covered with a smooth layer, these mucus helps the food slide into the stomach. Because esophageal secretion is not alkaline mucus, although the esophagus can withstand the wear from the food, but it is difficult to avoid chemical damage from the stomach acid, so when the acid reflux to the esophagus when esophageal mucosal burns occur, redness, erosion People will have heartburn and other symptoms. If the esophagus long-term by the erosion of gastric acid can occur esophageal mucosal lesions: Barrett esophageal esophageal cancer precancerous lesions.




At the end of the esophagus and stomach connected to the place, is the first key gastrointestinal valve - cardia. Cardia has a group of sphincter to ensure that gastric acid does not countercurrent to the esophagus. The role of the cardia is like an open and closed valve: non-eating time, the cardia in a closed state, so that even when people in the inverted time, the stomach of the stomach acid and food will not flow back to the esophagus; and this valve once No way to normal closure, the stomach will be reflux to the esophagus and even the mouth, there acid reflux, heartburn and a series of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. If the valve can not open normally, then there will be unable to eat the symptoms, medically known as cardia flaccid slow.



Food into the stomach of the valve called cardia, on the esophagus, food out of the stomach called the pylorus, then the duodenum.



The stomach is the most enlarged part of the human digestive tract, is the storage and digestion of food organs, the stomach is full of folds, can be a wide range of expansion, we eat a variety of food, it is said that the largest adult stomach capacity can be expanded to 7 times their own volume.



The main function of the stomach is to grind large pieces of food into small pieces, so that food into the small intestine to further digestion and absorption. Food into the stomach inside, the need for stomach exports (pylori) is closed, to prevent food down, so that food can be repeated in the stomach rub until the porridge into the same chyme, pylorus opened to let chyme into the twelve The next step is to digest. For example, the stomach is like a preliminary digestion, mixed food mixing pool, secrete acidic digestion chemical decomposition of food. And digest the general process of the same, the stomach digestive food mainly by mechanical mixing and chemical decomposition of the two ways to deal with.


Gastric digestive juice



Gastric secretion of digestive juice components are mainly gastric acid (hydrochloric acid) and pepsin, powerful. The essence of gastric acid is hydrochloric acid, which is secreted by the cells on the gastric mucosa. It can maintain the acidic environment needed for digestion in the stomach and ensure that the pepsin is active and promote the degeneration of food. Stomach acid can also kill the vast majority of bacteria into the stomach. However, it is interesting that the culprit of the stomach, Helicobacter pylori is naturally resistant to gastric acid and high acid environment in which rooted, destruction of gastric mucosa. Pepsin is a tool for the decomposition of protein in the stomach, which we can eat into the preliminary decomposition of food. And atrophic gastritis patients with gastric acid and pepsin secretion, can not fully digest the food to eat, so it is not difficult to understand why they will have symptoms of indigestion.



The protective layer of the stomach


Gastric acid contains high concentrations of gastric acid and pepsin, so why can the stomach digest the food but not digest itself? This is mainly because the gastric mucosa can secrete a layer of mucus to protect the stomach itself. This layer of mucus protective layer of gastric mucosa and gastric juice isolated to ensure that gastric juice is not directly contact with the same protein composed of gastric epithelial cells. The protective layer of the "mucus-bicarbonate" barrier is a natural barrier against stomachs against various harmful stimuli, which protects the gastric mucosa by isolating hydrochloric acid phase pepsin, so the mucosal barrier is like a protective layer. This layer of protective layer on the gastric mucosa, by the gastric mucosal blood flow, when the blood supply is insufficient, "protective layer" will become weak, and the cells are more difficult to repair them.



When the cause of gastric mucosal injury factors more than its resistance factors, can also lead to gastric mucosal injury. Clinically, many patients with stomach disease is not due to excessive secretion of gastric acid, but because of this layer of protective layer weakened gastric mucosa caused by gastric acid erosion caused. The growth and decline of the two sides affect the physiological and pathological changes of the gastric mucosa.



If we diet unrestrained, the stomach will be hot and cold, spicy and other stimuli. Many factors will lead to this layer of the stomach layer becomes weak: diet, the environment, drugs, and even the spirit and other factors will lead to reduced gastric mucosal blood supply, secretion of protective mucus to reduce the "protective layer" becomes weak, leading to gastric mucosa The resistance to pathogenic factors decreased and the occurrence of peptic ulcer.


Such as drinking on the stomach damage is great, alcohol will damage the stomach layer of this layer of mucosal barrier. Tobacco on the human body to the mouth not only in the respiratory system, the same will make the gastric mucosal blood supply reduced, the impact of smoking on the stomach is also unfavorable. When we take certain drugs (such as aspirin a painkiller, hormones, etc.) will occur gastric ulcer, stomach bleeding and other complications, is due to the side effects of these drugs lead to gastric mucosal blood supply decreased, causing "protective layer" weak.



Dietary factors affect the stomach well understood, but mental factors can also cause gastric mucosal barrier damage. To the characteristics of stomach attack to an example, a lot of people work pressure on the stomach pain. And then give an emotional affect the gastrointestinal function of the example: sometimes even hungry, and others quarrel on what suddenly no appetite. We have already mentioned that the digestive system is not controlled by our will, but will be affected by our emotions, people in the work pressure, mental state tension when the gastrointestinal blood supply will be reduced, the gastric mucosal blood supply is also reduced, "protection Layer "will become weak.



In addition, Helicobacter pylori can damage the protection of the stomach repeated, stomach disease is often caused by a total of multiple factors, which is difficult to relieve heart disease recurrence of one of the reasons.






Duodenum between the stomach and jejunum, is the first segment of the small intestine, but also the shortest length of the small intestine, the largest diameter, the location of the deepest and most fixed small intestine, anatomists in the study it found that the length of about Twelve fingers side by side so wide and named.



Duodenum is a special bowel, common bile duct and pancreatic duct opening in the duodenum, which receives the injection of gastric juice, side to receive pancreatic juice and bile injection, in the duodenum mixed with all the digestive juice , Its location and function of the importance of irreplaceable, equivalent to the junction of the river junction. The intersection of medicine known as the duodenal nipple, is the common bile duct and pancreatic duct confluence, many fat and bile pancreatic disease is because there is a problem, often more serious illness.



The liver is the largest organ in the human body, and the largest digestive gland in the human digestive system. As the largest body of the "chemical plant", the liver has a variety of functions. In the synthesis, the liver involved in the synthesis of protein, ammonia, ammonia process; the liver also secrete the liver, the liver is also involved in the synthesis of protein, glucose, fat, vitamins and hormones; Bile, contribute to lipid digestion; In addition, the liver or the body's largest "detoxification plant", a variety of toxins in the liver was metabolized, detoxification. In fact, people do not fully understand the liver function, can not be developed at the same time as the artificial kidney can be widely used in clinical "artificial liver." Specifically, the liver function includes the following aspects.


Metabolic Function


Protein metabolism


The liver is the only organogenesis of human albumin, and the synthesis, maintenance and regulation of globulin, plasma protein, fibrinogen and prothrombin require the involvement of the liver.



Glucose metabolism


Diet in the starch and sugar digestion into glucose, after intestinal absorption of the liver it will be synthesized into the liver glycogen stored in the liver, when the body needs, the liver glycogen can be broken down into glucose supply to the body. When the blood glucose concentration changes, the liver has a regulatory role. Therefore, under normal circumstances, glycogen synthesis and decomposition often maintain a dynamic balance.



Fat metabolism


The synthesis and release of neutral fats, the synthesis of cholesterol and phospholipids, the synthesis and transport of lipoproteins are carried out in the liver, so the liver is an important place for fat metabolism. If the body intake of too much fat, increase the burden of liver metabolism of fat, over time will form a fatty liver.



Vitamin metabolism


Vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin K synthesis and storage are closely related with the liver. Liver was significantly damaged, can be secondary to vitamin A deficiency and the emergence of night blindness or skin dry syndrome, etc., are usually seen in patients with cirrhosis.



Hormone metabolism


Liver involvement in hormone inactivation. Late hepatitis or cirrhosis patients often have severe liver damage, there may be sex hormone disorders, male breast development, female irregular menstruation, but also the emergence of the liver and spider nevus and so on.



Produce bile


Bile is mainly secreted by liver cells. You may be difficult to imagine that every day we endocrine bile of 800 ~ 1200 ml so much, resting the liver bile into the gallbladder savings and concentration, eating bile through the common bile duct secretion into the intestine, involved in fat digestion. 97% of the bile is water, the other ingredients are bile acids, bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipids and bilirubin and so on. Bile acid was neutral or weakly alkaline, with neutralizing acid, stimulate peristalsis, dissolve fat, promote fat-soluble vitamin absorption and other functions. Bile is yellow-green, which is due to bile containing bile pigment, fecal yellow is also flash for food digestion mixed with bile. Bilirubin in bile is the product of hemoglobin catabolism in erythrocytes, derived from aging erythrocytes.


Bile helps to digest lipids. Lipids are insoluble in water and need to rely on bile to help dissolve and digest. Bile in the bile salt can be fat into a small lipid droplets scattered in the digestive juice, and activation of pancreatic lipase, the oil and food decomposition. Bile composition is complex, under normal circumstances, cholesterol dissolved in the bile, but when the bile ratio imbalance, it is easy to form gallstones. Gallstones long in the gallbladder called gallstones, long in the bile duct called bile duct stones.



Synthetic protein


By the digestive tract absorption of amino acids in the liver for protein synthesis, deamination, ammonia and other processes, the synthesis of protein into the blood circulation to the body organs and tissues. Liver is the main place for the synthesis of plasma protein, liver synthesis of many types of protein, in addition to plasma protein, fibrinogen, prothrombin, globulin and albumin is also liver synthesis. Liver damage, the synthesis of albumin was significantly reduced, decreased plasma osmotic pressure, often appear both lower limbs can be depressed edema and the formation of ascites.




In the body metabolism process, the portal vein collected from the abdominal flow of blood, blood harmful substances and microbial antigenic substances will be detoxified and cleared in the liver. The liver is the main detoxification organ of the human body. We eat from the mouth of a variety of food, drugs, more or less on the human body has some toxicity, the liver can make these "poison" become non-toxic or highly soluble substances, with bile or urine excreted.


Amino acids and protein metabolism continue to produce waste - ammonia treatment are carried out in the liver. Ammonia is a serious toxic substances on the body, the liver can turn it into non-toxic urea, from the kidneys by urination, to detoxification purposes, and liver disease in patients with liver dysfunction when the plasma protein will be reduced, while elevated blood ammonia The If the liver disease to the late, liver function failure, the loss of the ability to deal with ammonia, can produce "ammonia poisoning", the occurrence of liver coma,  at any time there may be death.

Gallbladder in the right upper quadrant, hanging in the liver below, and the liver is closely related, cystic duct and hepatic duct confluence of the formation of common bile duct.



Gallbladder is a right upper abdomen of a pear-shaped organs, connected with the common bile duct, the main function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile. Gallbladder volume of about 50 ml, bile mainly by the liver continued secretion, the daily secretion of bile from the body of 800 to 1200 ml, and these bile is not continuously injected into the duodenum, people in the fasting bile will be stored in the gallbladder, and At the time of eating, the concentrated bile is released in large quantities to assist in digesting food, especially fatty foods.

Bile is concentrated after the formation of more likely to crystallize, stones, solid clinical often seen because of long-term non-eating lead to bile in the gallbladder stored in the gallbladder, was over-concentrated formation of gallstones in patients. Do not eat breakfast easy gallbladder stone is the truth.



The pancreas is similar to the liver, is a substantial organ, with endocrine and exocrine function. Its exocrine function refers to the pancreas can contain a variety of digestive enzymes digestive juice, through the pancreatic duct into the duodenum. Pancreatic secretion of the digestive juice is the most important digestive juice, can completely decompose the initial digestion of various foods, including protein, fat, carbohydrate. We usually eat "big fish and meat" is by the activation of trypsin to chemical digestion. So every festive, the hospital will receive an additional number of overeating due to overeating caused by acute pancreatitis patients. One of the causes of acute pancreatitis is the excessive intake of "big fish" or alcohol to stimulate pancreatic secretion of pancreatic juice too much. Pancreatic endocrine function is mainly produced insulin and glucagon, which is the regulation of blood glucose two important hormones. Usually the pancreas of the internal and external secretion function does not affect each other, but the pancreas lesions (such as inflammation and tumor), the two functions are often affected, not only the digestive function is not good, and blood sugar will be abnormal, this situation Common in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.


Small intestine occupy most of the space in the abdomen, one day secretion of digestive juice up to 7 to 8 liters, of which 90% are absorbed by the small intestine. After digestion of various nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals, etc.) by small intestinal epithelial cells up, after a level of vascular confluence into the mesenteric blood vessels, the final return to the liver.



Adult small intestine length of 4 to 5 meters, it is estimated that a full length of 3/5 adult small intestine after the expansion of the area of ​​200 to 400 square meters, the reason why so much, because the small intestine wall surface is not smooth, inside the mucosa There are many ring folds, similar to skin wrinkles, an anteling "wrinkles", which greatly increases the surface area of ​​the small intestine wall. In addition, there are also a lot of intestinal villi on the ring-shaped folds, and there are columnar cells on the intestinal villi. Each columnar cell is distributed with 1000 to 3000 microvilli, and the surface area of ​​all these tissues is added. The number. These microvilli make all the nutrients in the chyme and small intestinal epithelial cells in full contact, efficient absorption.



Colon commonly known as the large intestine, the main function for the absorption of fecal moisture, so that stool forming and temporary storage. Colorectal mucosa has a strong ability to absorb water, can absorb up to 5 to 8 liters of water per day, diarrhea, constipation and aquaculture is closely related to the function of absorption of water. If the large intestine is not completely absorbed water, feces too late to shape to the rectum excreted, this is the so-called diarrhea. If the stool in the large intestine stay for too long, almost all of the water are absorbed, it formed a difficult to solve the dry stool. Many constipation patients often because of the stool can not be used to cause stool to stay in the large intestine for too long, leading to dry stool, induration and thus more difficult to solve, the formation of a vicious cycle, exacerbated constipation symptoms. In addition, if the food is too small cellulose, resulting in digestion and absorption of colonic meat residue is too small, it is not easy to cause meaning, which is too easy to eat the cause of constipation caused by constipation, so the treatment of constipation to eat more cellulose Rich food.




The appendix is ​​located at the end of the right lower quadrant cecum. It is an elongated blind tube with an average length of 5 to 10 cm and a diameter of 0.5 to 0.7 cm. The appendix is ​​a degenerated bowel, similar to other digestive tracts, and has a structure of cavities and bowels, but the lumen is very narrow and "a dead end", so the dung and feces are accidentally dropped into the appendix Easy to catch out, this feature determines the appendix prone to inflammation.




Rectum is located in the pelvic cavity, the main function is to participate in defecation. Defecation reflexes are controlled by the consciousness of the cerebral cortex, and if the chances are often stopped, the sensitivity of the rectum to the stimulation of the fecal pressure is gradually reduced, and the stimulus threshold is increased. In addition, the rectal mucosa due to inflammation and increased sensitivity, even if the intestines only a small amount of feces and mucus, etc., can also cause the meaning and defecation reflex, and after the defecation of the feeling of endless, this situation is common in dysentery or enteritis.


Intestinal bacteria

Although the bacteria in the intestine is not the structure of the human body, it is a resident resident in the intestine. It is mainly concentrated in the large intestine. In the large intestine, there are countless bacteria, and it is estimated that there are about 2 Ten thousand times, the number is very amazing!


From the beginning of our birth, through the continuous intake of a variety of bacteria, most of the bacteria into the stomach after the stomach acid to kill, only a small part of the bacteria can be lucky enough to enter the large intestine, to another world. The environment in the large intestine was neutral or weakly alkaline, the speed of food residue through the very slow, this environment for the breeding and life of bacteria is unique, all kinds of bacteria will be here, "settled", became the generation settled in the large intestine In the strain. The bacterial composition in the intestine is related to a variety of factors such as our dietary structure and age.


When it comes to bacteria, people think they can get sick, and that's not the case. Some of the bacteria that cause serious illnesses are called pathogens, but most bacteria in the intestine live with us in peace, and some of them are beneficial to us: the enzymes contained in these bacteria can be properly treated into the large intestine Food residues and plant cellulose, through the fermentation of sugar and fat decomposition, through the decomposition of protein by the role of corruption, the synthesis of the body essential B vitamins and vitamin K, so that they can be used by the body.


We are healthy when the bacteria and the human body to maintain a balance, will not bring harm to the human body, so called the normal flora. And the bacteria between each other constraints, to maintain a relative balance. Normal flora builds up a number of advantages in the intestine, and it is difficult for other pathogens to expand the site. When the body defense capacity due to illness, fatigue, long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and other decline, sojourn in the body of the bacteria will lose balance, causing disease.


There are a variety of bacteria in the colon, such as Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and other intestinal coexistence of bacteria, these bacteria maintain the ecological balance and stability within the intestine. Which cocci and bacilli to maintain a certain proportion of cocci often occur when the constipation, bacteria are more conducive to maintaining the normal defecation; and intestinal flora may occur when the intractable diarrhea. The market selling yogurt, probiotics products is also to supplement the beneficial bacteria within the intestine to maintain the intestinal flora balance. In the supplementary probiotics is best not to overheating, the other is best to take after meals, while avoiding the use of antibiotics, or easy to kill probiotics, can not achieve the effect of supplement.

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